Ferrovanadium is used as an additive to improve the qualities of ferrous alloys. One such use is to improve corrosion resistance to alkaline reagents as well as sulfuric and hydrochloric acids. It is also used to improve the tensile strength to weight ratio of the material. One application of such steels is in the chemical processing industry for high pressure high throughput fluid handling systems dealing with industrial scale sulfuric acid production. It is also commonly used for hand tools e.g. spanners (wrenches), screwdrivers, ratchets, etc.
The most common use of ferrovanadium is in the production of steel. In 2017, 94% of domestic consumption of vanadium was to produce iron and steel alloys. Ferrovanadium and other vanadium alloys are used in carbon steel, alloy steel high strength steel, and HSLA (High Strength Low Alloy) steel. These steels are then used to make automotive parts, pipes, tools, and more.
The addition of ferrovanadium toughens the steel making it more resistant to temperature and torsion. This increase in strength is a result of the formation of vanadium carbides which have a rigid crystal structure as well as a finer grain size which decreases the ductility of the steel. In addition to adding to the composition of the steel, ferrovanadium can also be used as a coating on the steel. When coated with nitrated ferrovanadium, the abrasion resistance of steel increases 30-50%
Between 2013 and 2017, the United States imported 13,510 tons of ferrovanadium, a majority of which came from Czechia, Austria, Canada, and the Republic of Korea. The price of ferrovanadium has fluctuated dramatically since 1996, hitting an all-time high in 2008 at $76041.61/ton FeV80. In more recent years, it has once again seen an increase in price as environmental standards shut down some of the vanadium producers in China. These shutdowns, as well as the closure of a South African vanadium mine, created a vanadium shortage, forcing ferrovanadium factories to reduce their production of ferrovanadium, decreasing its supply and driving up the price.
The production of this alloy results in a grayish silver crystalline solid that can be crushed into a powder called "ferrovanadium dust". Ferrovanadium is a universal hardener, strengthener and anti-corrosive additive for steels like high-strength low-alloy steel, tool steels, as well as other ferrous-based products. It has significant advantages over both iron and vanadium individually.
V- MIN 78% MAX 82%
C -MAX 0.8%
SI - MAX 1.5%
Al - MAX 2%
S - MAX 0.08%
P - MAX 0.08%
Fe- MIN Balance
1,910ºC Punto de Fusión
3,407ºC Punto de Ebullición
2” a ¼ “ Presentación
2” a ¼ “ Empaque
2” a ¼ “ Empaque
Vanadium content in ferrovanadium ranges from 35% to 85%. FeV80 (80% Vanadium) is the most common ferrovanadium composition. In addition to iron and vanadium, small amounts of silicon, aluminum, carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, arsenic, copper, and manganese are found in ferrovanadium. Impurities can make up to 11% by weight of the alloy. Concentrations of these impurities determine the grade of ferrovanadium.