Density 6697 kg / m3 Ordinary State Solid
Melting point 903.78 K (631 ° C)
Boiling point 1860 K (1587 ° C)
Enthalpy of vaporization 77.14 kJ / mol
Enthalpy of fusion 19.87 kJ / mol
Vapor pressure 2.49 × 10-9 Pa at 6304 K
Antimony in its metallic use is a minor component but it is important in many soft solders, which are those that melt in temperatures below 625 degrees K. These solders can contain between 0.5 and 3% antimony.
Antimony has been used as a hardener for lead used in ammunition.
In the United States its use is largely confined to the manufacture of bullets and pellets. Contamination of groundwater, soil, and the food chain with the toxic lead has been a concern for many years, and environmental regulations have led to the replacement of lead to antimony with a tungsten alloy.
In non-metallic use, many common plastics are susceptible to degradation by heat and ultraviolet (UV) light, and products made from them must be protected during their service life by the addition of compounds known as stabilizers. Antimony has been used since the 1950s as an effective heat stabilizer for PVC, especially in rigid forms of plastic.
Antimony trioxide is used as a catalyst in the polymerization of PET, which is a plastic used in bottles, films, food packaging, and many other products. Antimony compounds, along with germanium dioxide, are the preferred catalysts for PET.
Due to its toughness, brittleness, and lack of malleability, antimony has no application as a metal by itself except for the small amounts used for ornamental castings and semiconductor devices. However, it is a minor component in many lead-tin alloys.
Most of the antimony that is used in the metallic state, such as in LA batteries, cable jacket, and various other uses, is used as some form of antimonial lead, which may contain up to 25% antimony, but more commonly contains single digit percentages.
Antimony is also a component of various tin alloys, such as brittany metal, antifriction metal, and tin-antimony-silver solders used to assemble pipes for drinking water.
Antimony forms a very large number of inorganic compounds. Sulfides predominate in nature and are commercially available as processed antimony minerals. In terms of the quantities produced, by far the most important synthetic compound of antimony is trioxide (Sb2O3), which is used by itself for some applications.
This semi-metallic element has four allotropic forms. In its stable form it is a bluish-white metal. It is mainly used in metallic alloys and some of their compounds to give resistance against sticking, in paints, ceramics, enamels, vulcanization of rubber and fireworks.
Antimony in its elemental form is a silver-white, brittle, meltable, crystalline solid that exhibits low electrical and thermal conductivity and evaporates at low temperatures.
This semi-metallic element resembles metals in appearance and physical properties, but chemically behaves like a nonmetal. It can also be attacked by oxidizing acids and halogens.
Estimates of the abundance of antimony in the earth's crust range from 0.2 to 0.5 ppm.
Antimony is chalcophilic, occurring with sulfur and other elements such as lead, copper, and silver.
Antimony is of increasing importance in the semiconductor industry in the production of diodes, infrared detectors, and Hall effect devices.
Used in alloys, this semi-metal greatly increases the hardness and resistance to mechanical stresses of the alloy. It is also used in different alloys such as pewter, antifriction metal (alloyed with tin), English metal (formed by zinc and antimony), etc.
Some more specific applications:
Batteries and accumulators12
Types of printers131415
Bearings and bearings
Antimony compounds in the form of antimony oxides, sulfides, antimonates, and halides are used in the manufacture of fire-resistant materials, enamels, glasses, paints, and ceramics.
Antimony trioxide is the most important and is used primarily as a flame retardant. These applications as flame retardants cover different markets such as clothing, toys, or seat covers.