Solid ordinary state
Density 9780 kg / m3
Melting point 544.4 K (271 ° C)
Boiling point 1837 K (1564 ° C)
Enthalpy of vaporization 104.8 kJ / mol
Melting enthalpy 11.3 kJ / mol
Vapor pressure 0.000627
Critical point 271.4 K (−2 ° C) 1564 Pa
When it is solid it floats on its liquid state, due to its lower density in the solid state. This characteristic is shared with water, gallium, acetic acid, antimony, and silicon.
In almost all bismuth compounds it appears in trivalent form, however, it can sometimes be pentavalent or monovalent. Sodium bismuthate and bismuth pentafluoride are perhaps the most important compounds of Bi (V). The former is a powerful oxidizing agent and the latter a useful fluorinating agent for organic compounds.
The bismuth atom is still popularly considered the heaviest among stable atoms, since its lifetime is several million the total age of the Universe, in addition to the fact that, in theory, all chemical elements from niobium are subject to Spontaneous fission, that is, all elements with a number greater than 41 can theoretically be unstable, although in bismuth the disintegration was observed by French studies in the last decade. It is also the heaviest monatomic non-radioactive element in existence.
It was already known in antiquity, but until the middle of the 18th century it was confused with lead, tin and zinc. It ranks 73rd in abundance among the elements of the earth's crust (it accounts for 8.5 × 10−7% of the crust's weight) and is as rare as silver. The main deposits are in South America, but in the United States it is obtained mainly as a by-product of the refining of copper and lead ores.
It is a typical metal from a chemical point of view. In compounds, it has valences of +3 (bismuth (III)) or +5 (bismuth (V)), trivalent bismuth compounds being more stable. There are several nitrates, especially bismuth nitrate, Bi (NO3) 3, or bismuth trinitrate, and its pentahydrate, Bi (NO3) 3 • 5H 2O, which decomposes into bismuth nitrate. This is also known as bismuth oxynitrate, bismutyl nitrate, pearl white and Spanish white, and is used in medicine and cosmetics.
Bismuth expands as it solidifies; This strange property makes it an ideal metal for foundries. Some of its alloys have unusually low melting points.
It is one of the most strongly diamagnetic substances. It is a poor conductor of heat and electricity, and its electrical resistance can be increased in a magnetic field, a property that makes it useful in instruments to measure the strength of these fields. It is opaque to X-rays and can be used in fluoroscopy.
Among the non-radioactive elements, bismuth has the highest atomic number and atomic mass (208.98). It has a melting point of 271 ° C, a boiling point of 1560 ° C and a density of 9800 kg / m³