Solid state ordinary (ferromagnetic)
Density 7874 kg / m3
Melting point 1808 K (1535 ° C)
Boiling point 3023 K (2750 ° C)
Enthalpy of vaporization 349.6 kJ / mol
Enthalpy of fusion 13.8 kJ / mol
Vapor pressure 7.05 Pa at 1808 K
Critical point 204 K (−69 ° C)
Molar volume 17 m3 / mol
Iron is the most widely used carbide, accounting for 95% by weight of world metal production. Pure iron (purity from 99.5%) does not have many applications, with exceptions to use its magnetic potential.
Iron has its great application to form iron and steel products, using it as a matrix element to house other alloying elements, both metallic and non-metallic, which confer different properties to the material. An iron alloy is considered to be steel if it contains less than 2.1% carbon; if the percentage is higher, it is called a foundry.
Steel is indispensable due to its low price and toughness, especially in cars, boats and structural components of buildings.
Ferrous alloys have a great variety of mechanical properties depending on their composition or the treatment that has been carried out.
Iron or iron 12 is a chemical element with atomic number 26 located in group 8, period 4 of the periodic table of elements. Its symbol is Fe (from the Latin fĕrrum) 1 and it has an atomic mass of 55.847 u.34
This transition metal is the fourth most abundant element in the earth's crust, representing 5% and, among metals, only aluminum is more abundant, and it is the first most abundant in planetary mass, because the planet, in its nucleus, concentrates the largest mass of native iron, equivalent to 70%.
The core of the Earth is made up mainly of iron and nickel in metallic form, generating a magnetic field when moving. It has been historically very important, and one period in history is called the Iron Age.
It is a malleable metal, silver-gray in color and has magnetic properties; It is ferromagnetic at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. It is extremely hard and dense.
It is found in nature as part of numerous minerals, including many oxides, and is rarely found free. To obtain iron in the elemental state, the oxides are reduced with carbon and then it is subjected to a refining process to eliminate the impurities present.
It is the heaviest element that is produced exothermically by fusion, and the lightest that is produced through fission, because its nucleus has the highest binding energy per nucleon (energy necessary to separate a neutron or a proton); therefore, the most stable nucleus is that of iron-56 (with 30 neutrons).
It presents different structural forms depending on the temperature and pressure.
At atmospheric pressure: