Iron and Steel Industry
The concept of iron and steel derives from the Greek language.
It is the process that involves the extraction and use of iron (the chemical element
whose atomic number is 26).
Through iron and steel, different iron treatments can be obtained to obtain different alloys and types of minerals. In nature, iron can be found as sulfur,
silicate, carbonate, hydroxide or oxide.
In this way, the first step of the steel industry is the exploitation of the mines of
iron to obtain this resource.
The steel industry, in general, works with iron in the form of carbonate,
hydroxide or oxide. The different processes to which the iron is subjected
allow to obtain very important products at an industrial level, as is the case
Through density separation or magnetization, the steel industry achieves
separate the components of the rocks that do not serve (known as bargains)
and keep the iron ore. For the production of steel, this mineral is first converted into pig iron.
Let's see below these separation methods in more detail:
* magnetization: it is a process that begins when each rock is passed through a magnetized cylinder so that those that do not have iron ore fall and remain apart, while the others remain attached to the cylinder. This method of separation presents a problem that makes it little
reliable, since a large part of the iron ore reserves is in
Hematite form, and this is not magnetic type;
* separation by density: unlike the previous process, it should be used
water with a density halfway between the iron ore and the gangue,
and submerge each rock in it. This method is also not infallible, since the
Steelmaking process can be adversely affected by wetting the ore.
The melting of iron with pumice and coke constitutes the initial phase of steel generation. The cast iron is subjected to the acceleration to minimize the carbon level, remove impurities and add, in some cases, various components.
is important to distinguish between steel and metallurgy.
While the notion of steel is focused on steel, metallurgy
refers to the obtaining and processing of metals and the manufacture of alloys. The steel industry, in this way, is a branch of metallurgy.
On the other hand, it is necessary to point out the differences between the concepts of integral steelmaking and steelmaking: the first is also simply known as the steel industry and refers to an industrial plant that is dedicated to the entire process of steel production from ore of iron; The steel mill, on the other hand, is also an industrial plant, but it only produces and produces steel, for which it uses iron or other steel.
In an integral steel plant there is a series of facilities that allow the production of various steel formats: * coke ovens: to obtain gas and coal coke;
* steel mill: allows to convert pig iron, or cast iron, into steel;
* blast furnaces: with which you can get cast iron from the ore;
* Molding: necessary for the production of large castings, called ingots.
On the other hand, three types of rolling mills are recognized, which are listed below:
* devastating: for the reduction of the dimensions of the ingots;
* Finishing: for hot plates and structures;
* cold: for straps and plates.